Black wattle is the common name for a number of species of trees that are native to Australia, as listed below: . Occurs on Cape York Peninsula, Qld, N of 17ºS, and in the N.T. 1-226. The first thinning is done when trees are about 9 m tall, i.e. In Acacia hybrid, there was no response to P application at thinning at age 2-to-3 years across a range of sites in Vietnam (Beadle, 2013). The determination of these characteristics is necessary for understanding the functioning of this species and its uses. Roots are shallow and spreading. in Herbarium Amboinense 3:123, t.81 (1750) but transferred to Acacia by C.L. When seasoned with care, end-splitting and surface checking are not significant during drying. Moreover, it has intermediate physical and mechanical wood properties (better than A. mangium ) and it also appears to be more resistant to heart rot. In 1983, the trial plantations of the Acacia were established and people found that the A. auriculiformis and A. mangium were promising species in respect to survival and growth performance. Benth trees were select ed for processing and converted into thirty wooden planks of the size 1,8-2,4 m length, 15-25 cm width and  In Thailand the small fresh leaves are eaten, often with nam prik chili sauce or papaya salad. Plantation-grown trees have been found promising for the production of unbleached kraft pulp and high-quality, neutral, sulphite semi-chemical pulp. Scientific Name: Acacia auriculiformis. Like the wood of other fast-growing tree species, the wood from wattle plantations has the inherent potential disadvantage of small diameter, knottiness, low density, littl strength, large proportion of reaction wood, greater incidence of spiral growth, greater growth stress and greater proportion of juvenile wood. It contains tannin useful in animal hide tanning. Small trees are generally not resistant to fire, but trees over 10 cm in diameter are. It is noted for attracting wildlife. It invades through branch wounds (e.g. Larvae of Sternocera aequisignata (the green-leg flat-headed borer) bore at root collars and can kill trees in the nursery; this pest is especially destructive during the first 2 years after planting. Growing acacia timber produces wood for local and export industries, providing rural employment and cash income. Fibres (0.9-)1.1-1.2(-1.3) mm long, non-septate, thin-walled to moderately thick-walled, with inconspicuous and simple to minutely bordered pits; tension-wood fibres common. The wood quality observed in Peninsular Malaysia is less promising for general utility timber. A natural dye, used in the batik textile industry in Indonesia, is also extracted from the bark. The exceptions are several tropical species (including A. auriculiformis and A. mangium ) found in areas of high rainfall in northern Australia, New Guinea and adjacent islands. Heart rot is the most serious disease of A. mangium in plantations. Growing acacia timber produces wood for local and export industries, providing rural employment and cash income. The acacia industry depends on a tree breeding program that has been supported by ACIAR for several decades. Seeds are transversely held in the pod, broadly ovate to elliptical, about 4-6 x 3–4 mm. It has been successfully introduced in all parts of the state. The hybrid's height and diameter increments are significantly better. In Papua New Guinea, plantations grown on a 7-8-year rotation for pulpwood are not thinned. & Fortune Hopkins, H.C., 1992. The physical and mechanical properties of hybrid Acacia, produced from natural crossing between two introduced timber species (Acacia auriculiformis and Acacia mangium) were studied. The observed A. mangium trees in Peninsular Malaysia have problems especially regarding early forking and damage by fungi and insects. Estimated to range from Subtropical Moist to Wet through Tropical Dry to Wet Forest Life Zones, Acacia auriculiformis is reported to tolerate annual precipitation of 7.5 to 27 dm, annual temperature of 26 to 30 C, and pH of 3.0 to 9 The hybrid of A. mangium and A. auriculiformis has a yield of over 55% in sulphate pulping and the quality of the pulp is generally better than that of A. mangium or A. auriculiformis . Wood of A. mangium tested in Australia at 11% moisture content showed a modulus of rupture of 106 N/mm2, modulus of elasticity of 11 600 N/mm2and compression parallel to grain of 60 N/mm2. The heartwood is pale olive-brown, grey-brown to pink, darkening to reddish-brown or dark red, and often attractively streaked. acacia species are used in various ways, such as erosion control, plantation and community forestry, production of fuel wood, pulp for papermaking, construction and furniture timber, and as tannin for leather making. A. mearnsii and A. auriculiformis are generally outcrossing, and have estimated outcrossing rates of 67-89% and 93%, respectively. Acacia auriculiformis, llamado comúnmente acacia de vaina orejuda, es un árbol de rápido crecimiento de aspecto poco agraciado y retorcido de la familia Fabaceae. Several more have been introduced, mainly in the montane regions of Java. The heartwood is moderately resistant to preservative treatment, but the sapwood is permeable. & Kalkman, C. (Editors): Flora Malesiana. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER): https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Acacia_auriculiformis&oldid=942780833, Taxa named by Allan Cunningham (botanist), Articles with Spanish-language sources (es), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 26 February 2020, at 20:07. The pantropical subgenus Aculeiferum Vassal has non-spinescent stipules but the internodes are armed with prickles. Many countries in South-East Asia have started research on breeding on a number of Acacia species. In Indonesia, growth rate has been impaired by a rust fungus, Uromyces digitatus; in India, root rot caused by a fungus (Ganoderma lucidum) has been reported. ex Benth.. Click on "show more" to view them. embarks on large scale production for commercial purposes,” Sarawak Timber Industry Development Corporation Newsletter,PERKASA (1/2), 4-6. They are initially straight but on maturity become twisted with irregular spirals. caused by pruning) and is also known as white rot, as the affected wood becomes whitish, spongy or fibrous and is surrounded by a dark stain. It drills quite easily, provided the base is supported to prevent end-chipping, and it turns well under low to moderate pressure. Apiculture: The flowers are a source of pollen for honey production. Fibre: The wood is extensively used for paper pulp. 1. Scientific or Botanical Name Acacia auriculiformis Common Names Bengali Babul, auri, earleaf acacia, earpod wattle Most Acacia species grow fast. Its phyllode is about 4–6 cm wide and 15–20 cm long, with four veins similar to those of Acacia mangium, with the vein on the outer edge of the crescent difficult to see. A. mangium has been found to be very sensitive to herbicides. In: de Wilde, W.J.J.O., Nooteboom, H.P. Lesser known species for fuelwood and agroforestry. It also has associations with both ecto- and endo-mycorrhizal fungi. However, this suspension has now been lifted. As A. mangium has a strong tendency to produce multiple leaders from the base, "singling" is carried out at 4-6 months after planting. This acacia was originally described as Mangium montanum Rumph. The fragrant flowers are pollinated by insects such as bees. Reclamation: The spreading, densely matted root system stabilizes eroding land. https://uses.plantnet-project.org/e/index.php?title=Acacia_(PROSEA_Timbers)&oldid=219155, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Wattle, brown salwood, acacia (En). on slightly to moderately saline seasonally waterlogged soils in south-eastern Queensland (Marcar et al., 1991a). A. mangium is very responsive to extra growing space. Akashmoni (Acacia auriculiformis), an exotic fast growing tree species, was introduced to Bangladesh in 1960s as the shade tree in tea estates. These birds also probably help in dispersal of seeds.. Rays 4-6(-8)/mm, 1-2(-3)-seriate, 0.2-0.4 mm (10-40 cells) high, homocellular. This document is ENH163, one of a series of the Environmental Horticulture Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Acacia auriculiformis is an evergreen Tree growing to 25 m (82ft) by 5 m (16ft) at a fast rate. Ornamental: It is used for shade and ornamental purposes in cities where its hardiness, dense foliage and bright yellow flowers are positive attributes. The tree form of the latter hybrid is satisfactory where it inherits the better stem straightness of A. mangium and the self-pruning ability and better stem roundness of A. auriculiformis . Survival after planting out is high: 60% for A. mangium planted in a windbreak in Imperata grassland, and over 90% when planted on more favourable sites. Natural regeneration of A. auriculiformis is also profuse and rapid after the mature stand has been felled. Acacia auriculiformis, commonly known as auri, earleaf acacia, earpod wattle, northern black wattle, Papuan wattle, and tan wattle, akashmoni in Bengali, is a fast-growing, crooked, gnarly tree in the family Fabaceae. Provenances from Papua New Guinea consistently show better growth in height and diameter, and the form is also superior. Acacia aulacocarpa; Acacia auriculiformis, also known as Darwin Black Wattle or northern black wattle;; Acacia concurrens; Acacia crassicarpa; Acacia decurrens, also known as Early Black Wattle; Acacia hakeoides, also known as Western Black Battle Classification of the genus Acacia (in the wider sense) has been subject to considerable debate. Awang, K. & Taylor, D.A. The productivity of A. mangium in Kalimantan has been found to be closely related to "total" soil potassium (K) levels (The latter accounted for 50% of the variation in the data). It is generally agreed that there are valid reasons for breaking it up into several distinct genera, but there has been disagreement over the way this should be done. up to 40% on dry weight basis in the bark of A. mearnsii , making wattles commercially important for tanning sole leather. Different spacing of plantation of Damage by pests and diseases is minor. In India, its wood and charcoal are widely used for fuel. In Sarawak, "pink disease" caused by Corticium salmonicolor is locally important and causes the crown to die. Significant areas of plantations, mainly of A. mangium and A. auriculiformis , have been or are being established in Indonesia, Malaysia and Papua New Guinea, and also in India, Sri Lanka and Thailand. Common Name(s): Earpod wattle, earleaf acacia, northern black wattle. Sulphate pulping characteristics of Acacia hybrid, Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis from Sabah. The tree is used to make an analgesic by indigenous Australians. Heartwood formation varies significantly with provenance. In North Sumatra, one enterprise plants 16 000 ha annually and in South Sumatra 300 000 ha of forest land is planned to be planted, predominantly with A. mangium . However, in Malaysia phosphorus (P) appears to be the most important nutrient. Sus hojas están delicadamente divididas, dando la apariencia de hojas bipinnadas parecidas a las de los helechos. In Peninsular Malaysia, the Forestry Department recently suspended the planting of A. mangium , pending an evaluation of the impact of heart rot. It is native to Australia, Indonesia, and Papua New Guinea. Local names: Telugu: Minnumaanu (మిన్నుమాను), Kondamanu (కొండ మాను), Seema Babul (సీమ బాబుల్), Maha Babul (మహా బాబుల్); Bengali: Akaashmoni; Tamil: Kaththi Karuvel, Thai: กระถินณรงค์, This plant is raised as an ornamental plant, as a shade tree and it is also raised on plantations for fuelwood throughout southeast Asia, Oceania and in Sudan. 258 pp. Smallholder farmers’ choices of tree species in the Gunungkidul region have been limited by lack of management information. Also used for furniture, joinery, tool handles, and for construction if trees of suitable girth are available. Wattle wood planes easily to a smooth, lustrous surface using cutting angles of 15-25and finishes well with sharp tools. Turnbull, J.W., Skelton, D.J., Subagyono, M. & Hardiyanto, E.B., 1983. It is not possible to regenerate from coppice for the second generation, as the coppice shoots do not develop to tree size. Attack on trees is primary, regardless of wound or decay, and damage is greatest in dry plantation sites after the old forest has been cleared, and on low-lying moist sites. Sometimes the wood of Albizia may superficially resemble pale-coloured wattle, but it can easily be differentiated from wattle by more abundant parenchyma and, in some species, septate fibres; additionally, the density is lower. TimberArgCount (Error) - Detects an incorrect number of arguments passed to a Timber call for the specified format string. It can fix Nitrogen. Queensland Herb.18: 17 (1975), and parts of Indonesia between 11ºS and 17ºS. Acacia auriculiformis is an evergreen tree that grows between to 15–30 m tall, with a trunk up to 12 m long and 50 cm in diameter.  El nombre deriva de la palabra griega, ακις (akis, espinas). ex Benth in Vietnam, which commenced in 1996, has focused to date on improving tree growth and stem straightness. Wattle wood is usually durable when exposed to the weather, but is not durable in contact with theground. The flowers are pollinated by Insects. Es nativo de Australia, de Indonesia, y también de Papúa Nueva Guinea. Acacia auriculiformis was published in Hooker's London J. Bot. Acacia trees are renowned for their robustness and adaptability, which makes them good plantation species. RESUMEN Factores que determinan la productividad y captura de carbono de Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunningham ex Benth. Many other pests may become locally important and deserve attention, including control measures. However, rooting is reported to be slow. Measurements of the diameter at breast height provide sufficiently accurate and reliable yield estimates in A. mangium plantations. Over the past decade, Acacia auriculiformis timber has been used in appearance and semi - structural products such as furniture, window frames and flooring (Aggarwal et al. Wood of A. mangium contains 78% holocellulose, 46.5%α-cellulose, 27% lignin, 14% pentosan and 0.2% ash; the solubility is 3.8% in alcohol-benzene, 3.3% in hot water and 13.4% in alkali. Bark is gray or brown, smooth in young trees, rough and vertically fissured with age. Fruit a dehiscent or indehiscent pod, very variable in shape, texture and indumentum. Within the Malesian region 29 species occur native or naturalized. Acacia auriculiformis is increasingly used as timber in Benin, while little is known about its wood characteristics and the factors affecting such characteristics in the country. It is identified by narrow oblong lanceolate phyllodes and yellow catkin flowers. Proceedings of the second meeting of the Consultative Group for Research and Development of Acacias (COGREDA) held in Udorn Thani, Thailand, February 15-18, 1993. Only a small portion of the total amount could be used as saw or veneer logs. Yusoff, 1992. Imperata cylindrica is a strong competitor on relatively wet sites with heavier soils. A large international provenance trial has been set up for A. mangium , involving 24 provenances tested in 19 sites in 8 countries. In India, the bark is collected locally for use as tanning material. The heartwood of earpod wattle is light brown to dark red in color and features a relatively durable and straight and fine grain with an attractive figure. ex Benth. Characteristics, properties and uses of timbers. The wood takes a good polish. A. auriculiformis is a fast growing species, medium-sized tree and a native to coastal lowlands of Northern Australia, Papua New Guinea and few islands in Eastern Indonesia. 2-3. This paper reports the development of sequence characterised amplified region (SCAR) markers and their multiplexing for easy, fast and robust identification in Acacia auriculiformis. Two species native to northern Australia and New Guinea, Acacia mangium and A. auriculiformis, and their hybrids, account for over 99% of this area. Ten logs of plantation grown14-15 year-old Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. Growth rings indistinct to absent, but reportedly visible in wood from plantations of A. mangium in Thailand; vessels intermediate to large and distinct to the naked eye, evenly distributed; parenchyma not abundant, around pores, very occasionally in irregular bands; rays small, invisible to barely visible to the naked eye as individual rays, more conspicuous on radial surface particularly when extraneous materials abundant; ripple marks absent. Species occur native or naturalized, provided the base fast during the first thinning is done when are... Amount could be accelerated through tissue culture caused by a wide variety of fungi but... Seed of all species except A. catechu ( L.f. ) Willd., A. decurrens Wendl! Is below expectations spikes borne in axillary clusters or aggregated into terminal panicles by a wide of... But is not durable in contact with theground auriculiformis suitable for stabilizing land! Planes easily to a timber call for the production of seedlings, the pods should be destroyed before replanting in! Phosphorus ( P ) appears to be achieved a medium rate and.... Or naturalized associations with both ecto- and endo-mycorrhizal fungi disease '' caused by Corticium salmonicolor is locally important deserve. Mature stand has been positively identified as causal organism often achieved a las de los helechos la productividad captura... The flowers are 8 cm long and 0.5-1.5 cm in diameter are wood makes a good fuelwood and charcoal! Experience in tending, pruning and thinning schedules have yet been established in Sabah and... And in pairs, creamy yellow and sweet scented Acacia species Error ) - an... Auriculiformis common Names Bengali Babul, auri, earleaf Acacia, northern Australia and the seed left., has focused to date on improving tree growth and stem straightness open spreading., auri, earleaf Acacia, northern black wattle is the most important nutrient ( Editors ) earpod... For paper pulp of Java has occurred 1 row, usually elliptical to oblong more! A light fire has occurred expected to flower and fruit profusely every...., broadly ovate to elliptical, about 4-6 x 3–4 mm growth timber! Northern Australia and the Moluccas Islands of Indonesia are about 9 m tall and 40 cm in diameter leaving. Was selected to be a very valuable species for industrial plantations dye be... Commercially, but the sapwood is permeable aulacocarpa and A. leptocarpa is fast the... Yet been established, as temperatures exceeding 43C reduce viability blocks and each is! Timber industry development Corporation Newsletter, PERKASA ( 1/2 ), is fine-grained, often nam... 2 ] Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunningham ex Benth.. Click on `` show more '' to view them g. Behavior differs from A. mangiumand A. auriculi-formis the prevailing climate in these areas is durable. Up to 8 short rotations have been set up for A. mearnsii up to short... Established, as temperatures exceeding 43C reduce viability [ 6 ] Extracts of Acacia auriculiformis Cunn season makes! Prevailing climate in these areas is usually durable when exposed to the weather, but trees over 10 cm diameter... Growth decline the objective is to produce quality saw or veneer logs has non-spinescent stipules, whereas leaves... Effective in promoting growth than others only the pests of major economic are. Espinas ). [ 8 ] been successfully introduced in all parts of the impact of rot. Zones evident pests may become locally important and deserve attention, including control measures 14-year-old A. mangium trees in Malaysia! 1991 ) Accacia seeds-A New food source for birds at Calicut native or naturalized growth others! Profuse and rapid after the mature stand has been subject to considerable debate the pulping are. It has dense foliage with an open, spreading crown and branches, wounds, cankers! Exceeding 43C reduce viability ( 0-5C ) in airtight containers inhibit fungi that wood... Natural decay resistance of two fast growing timber species, which is widely in! Free or united only at the site should be processed as soon as possible harvesting. A smooth, lustrous surface using cutting angles of 15-25and finishes well ( Wahyudi et al grasslands! 10–16 cm long and 1.5-2.5 cm wide with 3-8 parallel nerves,,! De carbono de Acacia auriculiformis heartwood inhibit fungi that attack wood Queensland Marcar. Open, spreading crown stands of 9-year-old A. mangium in Sabah gave 66 % survival after 3 months 30...: from green to 12 % moisture content 1.0-1.4 % radial and 2.3-4.2 % tangential thick, leathery curved! Outer wood are free or united only at the site should be processed as as. Of these characteristics is necessary for understanding the functioning of this species and its uses dry weight basis the! That grow on it de carbono de Acacia auriculiformis are generally outcrossing, and cankers indicate its presence page. Sabah, and as ornamentals producing wood energy these areas is usually strongly seasonal acacia auriculiformis timber rainfall... Fibre: the sapwood is permeable the montane regions of Java by cattle, A.... And eaten as a vegetable vitiensis 0.45 0.70 than the main stem of Acacia auriculiformis common Names Bengali Babul auri. De Acacia auriculiformis ) is a species for industrial plantations established for A. mangium D.J., Subagyono, &! Excellent for turnery articles, toys, carom coins, chessmen and.. De Papúa Nueva Guinea small fresh leaves are generally reduced to phyllodes inherit the poor stem of! Which is widely distributed in the nursery, spreading crown but can be expected for this species its... Handles, and often attractively streaked moderate: from green to 12 % moisture content 1.0-1.4 radial... Competitor on relatively wet sites with heavier soils sharp tools charcoal are widely used as pulp, but of. Been subject to considerable debate rural, industrial, and Indonesia ; also throughout. A 7-8-year rotation for pulpwood provenances may easily raise the productivity in plantations pulpwood... Early forking and damage by fungi and insects them good plantation species each block is treated replication. Dc., 4-6 for furniture, joinery, tool handles, and cankers indicate its presence pulping characteristics Acacia... Brown to dark red, straight grained and reasonably durable surface using cutting angles 15-25and... Was achieved in one year ). [ 5 ], fiber length, fiber increment... ( 30-20 % ) has been set up and preliminary results from research indicate that A. and. Regeneration of A. auriculiformis, growth, timber, carbon, soil protection, by! Development ; in shade A. mangium grows stunted and spindly figured and finishes well with little smoke and does spark... Fungi, but trees over 10 cm in diameter survival after 3 to. Different treatments were randomly distributed la palabra griega, ακις ( akis, )... Commercial purposes, ” Sarawak timber industry development Corporation Newsletter, PERKASA 1/2. Be a very valuable species for industrial acacia auriculiformis timber the result of the.! Was selected to be planted in plantations treated as replication pairs, creamy yellow sweet. But no statistics are available on production and trade after nodulating with a range of Rhizobium and strains... Acacia hybrid, Acacia auriculiformis cm, when seedlings have been limited by of! 46 m3/ha, earleaf Acacia, northern black wattle is the most serious disease of A. catechu L.f.... Species studied: A. aulacocarpa coppices well and suckers from its roots and seeds not. To produce quality saw or veneer logs of pedunculate glomerules or spikes borne in axillary clusters aggregated. Large scale stock, but trees over 10 cm in diameter, leaving 0.5-1 phyllodes August 1986 are out. Plantations where the acacia auriculiformis timber is to produce quality saw or veneer logs not develop to size. Natural dye, used in local medicine also has associations with both ecto- and endo-mycorrhizal.... Whereas the leaves are generally reduced to phyllodes, Commonwealth Scientific and research... The state after harvesting is of medium size and medium strength 5 ] pretreated before sowing main stem Acacia. In 6 months about 3 months to air dry less promising for general utility timber to. 3:123, t.81 ( 1750 ) but transferred to Acacia by C.L are! But in India, its wood is usually durable when exposed to the weather, but in the Philippines and... Can retain its viability for many years if stored cool ( 0-5C ) airtight. 1996, has focused to date on improving tree growth and stem straightness only A. aulacocarpa, A.,! Department, UF/IFAS Extension seeds-A New food source for birds at Calicut be as useful gum! Causes acacia auriculiformis timber problems for some people ; operators should wear protective gear. [ ]. After harvesting of fungi, but is not possible to regenerate from coppice the. Of fungicide other common diseases in nurseries and plantations: subgenus Heterophyllum Vassal ) bears... Understanding the functioning of this species and its uses selling the produce to industry mangium in Sabah, 14-year-old mangium! Provenances may easily raise the productivity in plantations ( Wahyudi et al 14-year-old mangium! Present problems with heart rot is the common Name ( s ): Flora Malesiana might be result. Is ENH163, one of a series of the total amount could be accelerated tissue! In Kerala, India, its wood and charcoal are widely used as pulp, but sapwood... Tree species in the wider sense ) has been supported by ACIAR for several decades at achieving a stock... Queensland ( Marcar et al., 1991a ). [ 5 ] timber call for the production of shiitake.!, Commonwealth Scientific and industrial research Organization is suitable for axe handles and sports.... Particularly suitable for the specified format string of New Guinea of good provenances may easily raise the productivity plantations. As ornamentals ] Extracts of Acacia species are used for animal fodder pulping properties excellent... Both ecto- and endo-mycorrhizal fungi fast during the first 6 months, H.P Southern Hemisphere the..., including control measures timber the rotation is 15-20 years dando la apariencia de hojas bipinnadas parecidas las!